All About Commonly Given Medications/Learn How To Give Them

This page will show you the most common medications.

 The reason the medications  are used and their correct dosage.

This page will also show you how to draw up the medications.

You can learn how to give a SC or IM injection.  

You can also learn to give an IVmedication and this same process will allow you to draw blood.

First Let us look at the way medications are measured

ml’s stands for milliliters
One cc = one ml =15 drops. They are equivalent.
One teaspoon = 5 cc = 5 ml
One Tablespoon (Tbl) = 15 cc = 15 ml=1/2 ounce
One Tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
One ounce = 30 cc = 30 ml = 2 Tablespoons = 6 teaspoons
8 ounces (The common size for a formula bottle) = 240 cc = 240 ml


Please understand that it is always best to consult your vet if you are unsure of something.The information here is meant to be used as a reference or when there is a problem and you can’t contact your vet. We are NOT vets. This information has been provided by several different and experienced breeders. We also have the imput from a few different vets.

Breeders will often use medications in a way that works, however, it’s not an approved method by most vets. I mention that so that you can make your own choices. Very little research or money has been spent on goat medicine. The biggest majority of Vets don’t know alot about goats. Also most medications are considered off label for goats. Most medications are not for use on a pregnant does.

The are several sites that have a listing of medications and their useages. We wanted to offer one geared more towards the Fainting goats. We decided to use an A-Z approach to make it user friendly. Medication name and the reason to use is in bold print.


Before giving any medications please check your goats Temperature. If they are NOT running a temp, they may not need antibiotics. Over use of antibiotics can result in resistance. Resistance can also happen with wormers too.

A & D ointment is a skin protector. Helps with rashes such as urine scald. It is a Vitamin A & D cream.

Activated Charcoal such as ToxiBan should be given for poisoning.

Albon (Sulfadimethoxine 12.5 %) Also marketed as Di-Methox. This is often used to treat Coccidiosis. This is to be used orally. The liquid is the best. Poweders are a pain to work with. Give 1cc per 5-7# per day. Use at least 5 days. May use longer if needed. You can give a double (bolus) dose the first time. Don’t stop until you have nice pellets formed. Vet prescribed. No refrigeration needed. I have given to pregnant does without any side effects.

Alum (spice) It can help stop bleeding.

Ammonium Chloride Used in the prevention of Urinary Calculi. It is often found in your feeds. It can be given as a supplement. It can also be used as a treatment. Prevention of course is the best key. Mix 1 TBSP with 20CC of water and drench. Very bitter. Can cause a burning in the throat.

Ascorbic Acid Powder can also be used in the treatment of Urinary Calculi. Use 1 TBSP mixed with about 20cc of water or juice

Baby Aspirin (81mg) Used for pain. Can be crushed and mixed with molasses and hot water. Give as needed every 4 hrs. Give 1 per 10 pounds.Do not use Tylenol or Ibupropen. Grinding teeth is a sign of pain, or crying out.

Baby Magic is a homemade recipe much like Nutra Drench. Aids in stimulating the appetite, boost of energy, relieves stress and helps to hydrate. 8oz very hot water,2 Tbsp. Molasses, 2 Tbs. Light Karo Syrup, ½ tsp. salt, ½ tsp. Baking soda. Mix and serve hot. I have not given this to pregnant does however, I don’t see anything in this recipe that would be harmful.

Bag Balm is full of lanolin. It stays on fairly well. It is used for dry and chapped skin. Works on scratches and abrasions. Helps rashes. Used in areas of urine scald. Use on dry and chapped udders.

Baking Soda should be offer free choice to help regulate the Ph in the rumen. I have given to pregnant does in the past without side effects.

Banamine (FluMeglumine) This is used as an anti-inflammatory to bring down fever and help reduce swelling. Reduces pain.Give 1cc per 100 #. Give SQ or IM. Caution should be used to only give it once in a 36 hrs period. No more than 3 doses should be given. If it is needed more often you should consult your vet. This is rough on the digestive system and can cause ulcers. Tums are often given along with this medication. Some also give it orally, however, it hasn’t been approved for oral use. Vet prescribed.

Benadryl (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) see Childrens liquid Benadryl below.

Benzathine Penicillin (long-acting, also called Twin Pen or Combi-Pen) This is an antibiotic. Used IM or SQ, however IM is faster. Used for Pneumonia, infections, and polio. Give for difficult births and anytime you have to go up inside to assist mom to prevent infection. Good for Goat Polio every 6 hours along with Thiamine, for the first 3 days, and then twice a day for the next 2-4 days. Keep Refrigerated. Shake well before giving. Give 1cc per 25 # every other day for 3-5 injections. For critical issues use 1cc per 20# daily for 3-5 days.

Betadine (Providone-Iodine) is a surgical scrub that can also be used to treat wounds and to dip navel cords.

Biomycin (Ocytetracycline) This is an antibiotic. It is a non sting formula. Given IM or SQ. Used for abortion storms, pink eye, hoof rot, and mastits. Give 1cc per 25# every other day for 3 injections. May drop 1-3 drops in each affected eye, twice a day for treatment of pink eye. This eye treatment has not been approved. Milk can reduce the effects of the medication so pay close attention to nursing kids or bottle kids.

Biosol (Neomycin Sulfate) Use in scouring kids and adult only when Coccidosis is NOT the cause.1-3cc orally for kids until berries are normal. Adults give 3-5cc orally until berries are normal.

Bleach will kill bacteria and can be mixed with water at a ratio of 10:1 to spray on hooves after a trimming to treat or prevent hoof rot. It is great to clean up hoof trimmers afterwards to prevent the spread of any possible infection.

Blood Stop Powder This should be kept on hand to stop the bleeding from a hoof that is bleeding from being trimmed too close. Used to stop the bleeding of a broken horn or scur.

Blue-Kote Antiseptic protective wound dressing. Treats ringworm, surface wounds, & cuts.

Bo-Se is used for Selenium deficiency. It can be toxic so use with care. Symptoms of deficiency will include weakness in the rear legs in kids at birth. In adults it causes Muscular Dystrophy or White Muscle Disease. Consult your vet for the dosage if possible.Otherwise use the table below.

BoSe is dosed 1cc per 40#
5# kid would get .11cc just over a tenth
10# kid would get .25 or 1/4 cc

Bovi Sera is used the same way Goat Serum is for infections, shipping fever, and mastitis. The only difference is that is NOT labled for goats. It is cheaper and therefore often used in large herds.

Calcium Gluconate 23% is used for Milk Fever and/or Floppy Kid Syndrome. Give SQ. Give daily for 3-5 days. Give with a Vitamin A and D injection so the Calcium will be absorbed correctly. May help with cervical dilation.

CD Anti-Toxin provides a short term protection and treatment for the overeating disease. Give kids under 6 # 3cc SQ every 12 hrs. Kids 6-12# get 5cc SQ every 12 hrs. Kids 15-20# get 10cc SQ every 12 hrs. Adults (80#) give 20cc SQ every 12 hrs.

CD/T Toxoid Provides long-term protection against Overeating Disease and Tetanus. This may cause a lump where it is given. Keep Refrigerated. Give at room temperature. Requires two injections 28 days apart the first initial dose. Then give annually. Give 2cc’s per dose.

CMPK (Calcium Supplement) For use as an aid in the treatment of hypocalcemia (parturient paresis, milk fever), hypomagnesemia (grass tetany) and other conditions associated with calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium deficiencies.Give 30-60 cc, orally. Short term. For treatment of Milk Fever.

Children’s Liquid Benadryl (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) This is an Antihistamine. Used for allergies to dust and pollen, watery eyes, coughing, sneezing. Given orally. Not more than 2 cc for a baby. 5-15 cc for adult. Give every 6 hrs. Not to exceed 5 days.

Coffee Black coffee can be used as a stimulate for weak kids

Colostrum Newborns MUST have colostrum during the first hours of life. The best choice is from mom but if that is impossible frozen colostrum is the next best choice. Freeze some and keep it for times of need. It will stay good for 2 years in the freezer. You can also purchase a colostrum replacer. Make sure it is not cow replacer, Oral Gel: Contains a source of 5 probiotics, dried colostrum, vitamins A, D3, E and B12 and trace minerals. Supplies a source of maternal antibodies and protein. Lactobacillus organisms assist in the establishment of beneficial microflora in the newborn goat. Also comes in a powder. The newborn will also receive a generous supply of highly absorbent, essential vitamins and trace minerals.

Copasure Capsules is given to build up the copper levels in goats that seem deficient.

Co-Ral is for external parasite treatment. Safe for lactating goats. It is a powder applied to the goat by dusting.

CoRid It is a Thiamine inhibitor, effectively shutting down the immune system. Dont use.

Cut & Heal Aids in healing wounds. Is a protective barrier against germs. Can purchase it in a spray, dauber or powder.

Cydectin is a purple worm medicine. Will strain. Good for Lung and gastorintestinal roundworms, lice, and mange mites. Unsure about the usage in pregnant does. 1cc /22#. I do not rotate wormers. If it is working I keep on using it.

CyLence Pour-On 1%. This is cattle insecticide. Kills biting glies and 2 kinds of lice. Use every few days.

Dectomax A wormer that is given SQ. 1ml per 100 pounds.

Diatomaceous Earth (DE) A natural remedy to control fleas and other external parasites. Dust goat and around barn area. Be careful not to breath in dust. Wear a mask.

Desilin ointment is a diaper rash cream. Works for urine scald and other rashes.

Dexamethazone Vet prescribed. It is used for inflammation. Dosages will be different for each situation. Contact your Vet before using. Lots of side effects. Not for newbies. DO NOT USE IN PREGNANT DOES. It is sometimes given for Ketosis. It will lower the goats immune system so an antibiotic should also be given.

Dextrose 50% can be given 1-2cc to newborns by slowly dropping it into their mouths for energy

DMSO Gel is effective for external swelling. Good for injury to muscles and tendons. Wear gloves when using this product.

Di-Methox 12.5% This is used to treat Coccicidosis. It is the generic version of Albon. Can be purchased at feed stores. It is a clear liquid. Goats don’t really like the taste of it. This can be purchashed in a powder form. If this is all you can get you should mix 1 pkg with 3 cups of water and dose the same as Albon. 1cc per 5-7# for 5 days.

Draxxin an anitibotic. Used for Pneumonia with good results. 1.1cc/100#. One time per week.

Excede is an antibiotic. Given once a week. 1.5 cc per 100#. Give 1/2 cc for newborn. Good for respiratory issues.

Electolyte Replacement 1 gallon warm water, 2 teaspoons table salt, 1 teaspoon baking soda, 1/2 cup honey, Karo, or molasses. Goat can drink it free choice. It comes in a powder that you can buy also to keep on hand.

Epinephrine. This is used to counteract shock in animals. A must to have on hand when giving an injection. Give 1cc per 100#. Remember just because the animal has had the medication before does not mean you don’t need it on hand. A reaction occurs usually on the second time or more after a medicine is given. Refrigerate.

Excenel A vet prescribed anitbiotic. Broad specturm used for respiratory issues. Can also be used for pink eye. This is the generic form of Naxel but does not require refrigeration.Give 3cc/100#

Fleets Enema can be used for constipation. Also used for toxicity reactions, including FKS. If a newborn girl has her vagina turned out, use a Fleets suppository or generic to help her move her bowels. This will correct the situation.

Furall Spray (Furazolidone) Great topical antibacterial. Use after disbudding and for abrasions and cuts. Not to be used on major,deep wounds.

Fresh Fruit contains a high amount of Vitamin C and can be given in the prevention of Urinary Calculi. Crushed fruit may also be beneficial for the treatment of urinary Calculi when Ammonium Chloride is unavailable. Goats love fruit.

Gatorade. A great way to re-hydrate a goat. Orange seems to be the favorite flavor. Can be given to all ages.

Gentamicin Sulfate Oral Solution is a pig product. DONT USE

Goat Aid is similar to Nutra Drench and Baby Magic

Goat Serum Given to help maximum growth and a long, healthy, procutive life. Used as a treatment for infections in adult goats such as mastitis and shipping fever complex. Labeled for goats. Dosage would be 10cc SubQ.

Hibiclens 4% is a great way to clean deep wounds and can be found over the counter

Hydrogen Peroxide. Used for cleaning wounds. Can be used as a teat dip. A MUST have item!

Immodium ADDONT USE”

Iodine 7% Used on newborns navel cords to prevent infection. Also used on cuts and abrasions.

Ivermectin 1% Injectable is a used orally in goats. given 1cc/50# This is a clear wormer . It is the wormer of choice for a Menigeal Deerworm infection. Helps to control lice. I have also been told that the horse paste works and that you don’t have to worry about giving too much. I have used this on Pregnant does without side effects.

Ivomec Sheep Drench is a broad-spetrum parsiticide indicated for Gastrointestinal Roundworms, Lungworms and Nasal Bots. Ivermectin disrupts nerve impulses in parasites, causing paralysis or death.
-Ivomec Drench treats and controls lungworms, gastrointestinal roundworms, and nasal bots in sheep
-Long-lasting protection
-Available without a prescription

This can be used in goats as well. Give it orally.

Weight Dosed

3 mL 26 lbs

6 mL 52 lbs

9 mL 78 lbs

12 mL 104 lbs

15 mL 130 lbs

18 mL 156 lbs

21 mL 182 lbs

24 mL 208 lbs

27 mL 234 lbs

30 mL 260 lbs

J Lube A concentrated powder that dissolves easily in water. This effective obstetrical lubricant . Keep in kidding kit.

Kaopectate is the same as Immodium AD. DO NOT USE

Karo syrup can be used in place of molasses.For energy. It does not contain any nutrients such as Calcium.

Kopertox can be used for hoof rot. it forms a liquid bandage on the hoof.

LA200 (Oxytetracycline). This is abroad spectrum antibiotic. Give SQ or IM. Give 4.5cc per 100# every 36-48 hours,Or give 3cc per 100# daily. Used for pinkeye, retained placenta, foot rot. May apply a few drops into the affected eye when treating Pink Eye. No refrigeration needed.

Lactated Ringers Vet prescribed. Use to re-hydrate babies. Give 30cc in each shoulder. Warm bag in water first. Will leave a lump under the skin but it will be reasorbed.

Lemon Juice: The juice from 1 lemon mixed with 2Tbs Baking Soda and 1 cup water can be used for urinary Calculi.

Levamisole is a wormer for lung worms. Toxic if overdosed. Know how much your goat weighs. Give 1cc per 50# orally.

Liver 7 is full of vitamins. It is a golden colored liquid that is often used when the goat needs a boost. Given SQ.

Lutalyse. Often called Lute. Give to abort a wrong breeding. Give 2cc exactly 10 days after breeding. This is hard on the doe so think before you use it.

MicotilNever use Micotil with goats

Milk of Magnesia (MOM) Use for bloat. Given orally.Use 15cc per 60#. Give every 4-6 hours until you see goat berries. Can be mixed with a little Baking Soda too. Give MOM anytime your goat appears to have an altered Ph. If your goat is eatting hay and grass but rejecting the grain it is most likely a Ph problem.Used for treatment in Floppy kid Syndrome too.

Milk Replacements Used when mom is unable to nurse the kids. Don’t use a soy formula. Use a replacement designed goats. Not a generic all purpose type. Save-a-kid is a High quality non-medicated kid milk replacer designed to closely match doe’s milk. Made with 100% milk proteins for superior digestibility and performance in goat kids. Mixes easily, contains 26% protein, 20% fat with balanced levels of vitamins and minerals.

Minerals should be offered free choice. Loose minerals are the best.

Mineral Oil Goats can not taste this and could aspirate. Do Not give.

Mineral Max (MinMax) – Vet prescription. A blue liquid. It is used for severe mineral deficiencies. It is a chelated source of 60 mg zinc, 10 mg manganese, 5 mg selenium and 15 mg copper. 1cc per 100 pounds. Don’t overdose. You should have an accurate weight on your goat prior to giving this medication.

Molassess (Blackstrap) can be given for an energy booster or to stimulate appetite. It can be mixed with bad tasting medications to help get them down the goat. Molassess and warm water should be offered to all does shortly after kidding. Can be used to treat Ketosis/Toxcemia/Hypocalcemia. Molasses contains iron ,calcium, copper, manganes, magnesium, selenium, and B6 where as Karo does not. It is a great item to keep on hand.

Naxcel (Ceftiofur Sodium) This is an antibiotic. Good for Pnuemonia. Give IM for 5 days. 1cc per 50#. Give twice daily. Newborns get ½ cc.

Neomycin & Polymyxin B & Sulfates and Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Suspension. A great antibiotic eye drop for infected eyes and pink eye.Use 3 drops twice a day until problem is gone I have used on pregnant does without isssues. Vet prescribed.

Neosporin Plus Give this triple antibiotic ointment for minor abrasions and to treat eye infections. Goats will lick regular Neosporin off easier than the plus.

Nuflor (Florfenicol)This is an antibiotic. Given IM or SQ for respiratory problems like Pnuemonia. Very thick. Use 18 gauge needle. Give 1 cc per 100 #every third day . Can also be given 3cc per 100# as a one time dose. The first time I gave this medication I thought my goat was having a reaction. She threw herself to the ground and cried. I have since realized this is common. This is a painful injection so don’t be alarmed. I have personally given Nuflor to pregnant does without side effects. Newborn/young kid dose= 1/2cc

NFZ Puffer (Nitrofurazone) This is the pure, powdered form of the medicine found in Furrall spray. Known to heal wounds from the inside to the outside. Clean wound daily before treating with NFZ. Goats HATE this.

Nurti Drench is a fast sorce of quick energy when you have a weak kid. Helps stimulate appetite, reduce stress and sometimes helps with diarrhea.

Oxytetracycline (LA 200) Refer to LA 200.

Oxytocin. This is used after kidding when the doe does not pass her afterbirth. Must be given before the cervix closes so you have about 5 hrs. Give 1.5cc per 100#. It can be used again in 1 hr but No more. Given also for milk letdown.

Panacur is a wormer related to Safe Guard. This is the horse version.

Pasteurella This is a vaccine for prevention of pneumonia. Give 2ccSQ and repeat in 2-4 weeks. Then give annually

Peppermint Oil is often used as a natural remedy for mastitis, bruises, and muscle strains. Just rub it on the area.

Pepto Bismol. This is an anti-diarrhea medicine. Must use the name brand. Give 2cc every 4-6 hrs for newborns and 15cc for every 10# on adults. Use 3-5 days once a day for adults.

Primor scored tablets is a sulfa antibiotic. Used for Coccidiosis. Give a double dose on day one and continue for a total of 10 days. 120’s for 5-15#,240’s for 10-20#, 600’s for 25-50#, and 1200’s for 50-100#.

Probios Gel is an aid in digestion and helps to maintain Ph. Helps when goats are stressed. Use daily for 3-5 days. Needs to be given after the completion of antibiotics.

Probiotic Plus Paste is the same thing as Probios Gel but with some added vitiamins such as A,B12,D,E Niacin, and Ascorbic Acid.

Procaine Penicillin (Penicillin G) This is an antibiotic. Short term. Give 1cc per 25#. Give daily. Give IM or SQ. Keep refrigerated but warm before giving to room temp. Use for skin infections, mastitis, foot rot and wounds.

Proplene Glycol. This is used to treat Ketosis. Use 50-60 cc twice a day until she is back on her feed. Give orally. Best if mixed into some Gatorade.

Quest Horse Gel (Moxidectin) Give 1cc per 100# for Barber Pole worms. For easy measurement use a regular syringe.

Red Cell. This is an excellent source of iron. Helps goat recover from Anemia. 6 cc a day. Give orally daily for 7-14 days.

Robitussin is an Antihistamine that can be given 6cc per 100 pounds for congestion.

Rubbing Alcohol should be kept handy for cleaning any equipment such as your thermometer.

Safe Guard is a white wormer. They make one just for goats. 1.2cc/50#. Safe for pregnant does. There is some resistance to it. Not recommended as your primary wormer. Safe for Pregnant does. Great on babies for the first and second wormings.

Selenium E Gel for selenium deficiency. Give 1mg which should be equal to 5ml.

SMZ (sulfadimethoxazine with Trimethoprim) a sulfa antibiotic. Comes in tablets and liquid. Used to treat E-Coli.

Tagamet (200Mg tablet) Can be used in conjunction with antibiotics to help with stomach upset. 1/2 Tagamet per 100 #. Give once every day for 3-5 days.

Terramycin Eye Ointment Can be used for pink eye.

Tetanus Antitoxin. Short term protection. Given in cases of tetanus and tetanus-like infections. Start CD/T 5 days later. Comes in individual vials.

Tetanus Toxid. Long acting protection. This is given yearly. Takes about 9 days for it to become active in the goats system.

Thiamine Hydrochloride (B1) Very important to keep on hand. For treatment of Listerosis and Polio. If it is a 200mg bottle, give 2cc IM every 6 hrs for the first 3 days, then 2 times a day for the next 2-4 days. If it is a 500mg bottle, give 8/10 cc, following the same schedule as the other. Do not overdose.

Triple Antibiotic Ophthalmic Ointment used in the treatment of pinkeye.

Tums can be given with harsh medications to help reduce rumen problems. Helps maintain Ph.Use as a quick fix of Calcium, give once a day for 3-5 days.

Tylan 200 See Biomycin 200

Today & Tomorrow is a treatment for mastitis. Given twice a day. Today is for does in milk. Tomorrow is for dry does.

Udder Balm Can be applied to ears to help prevent frost bite. Works to heal dry chapped skin and skin irritations.

Ultra-Boss Ultra Boss Pour-On Insecticide is used for biting lice and flies.

Vet RX is a relief medicine for the stuffy nose. Give 2-3 drops per nostril as needed.

Wormers Don’t under Dose. It is best to use the FAMCHA chart prior to worming. Always best to obtain a fecal test first. I don’t rotate my wormers. I use them until they no longer work! The wormers added to the feed are NOT depenable.

Wound Ointment (homemade) 1 medium container of Vaseline, 1 Large tube of diaper rash oniment, 1 tube of women’s yeast infection medication, 1 tube athlete’s foot medication, 1/4 cup Nolvasan or Betadine liquid, 1 tube triple- antibiotic wound ointment. Warm gently to liquefy, blend, and allow to cool.

Vaseline can be used for urine scald. Place on areas affected and this should help keep the urine off the skin by giving the skin a protective coating.

Valbazen is a wormer that kills lung worms, gastorintestinal roundworms,tapes,stomach, liver and flukes. Do not give during pregnancy. Give 3cc per 50#.

Vegtable oil This is given to help break up the bubbles and relieve bloat.

Vetericyn One step topical spray used as an aid in healing teat rashes, wounds and general irritation. Aids in controlling the spread of bacteria that cause bovine mastitis and to promote healing of cracked teats. Vetericyn also makes a navel dip called super 7+ that is good for dipping navel cords in.

Vitamin A & D is given SQ when kids legs are bending outward or refuse to straighten out. Used in Floppy kid Syndrome. Can repeat in 60 days. Babies is ¼-1/2 cc . Adults give 1-2 cc.

Vitamin B Complex can be subtituted for Thiamine, but requires twice the amount. Give 4cc when goat is off thier feed.Store out of sunlight.

Vitamin C tablets can be crushed up and mixed with just enough water, juice, or Gatorade to dissolve it and given for the aid of urinary Tract Calculi.

Vitamin B12. Given for anemia, or stress. Helpful when goats are off feed. Give SQ 1-2 cc per 100#. Store out of sunlight. They also make a gel to be given orally. There is a new liquid on the market by Rooster Booster. It is an oral B12 for goats and sheep.

Vitamin E Works in conjunction with selenium and is essential for tissue, muscular and udder health.

Yogurt This is a good way to put bacteria back into the goats rumen. Some like it plain and others like it flavored.

Zactran is an antibiotic. Good for respiratory issues. Given IM.

Zinc Ointment is used for rashes and skin irritations. Helps in healing and protecting skin.

What should I know about the syringe?

  • A syringe has 3 major parts: the needle, the barrel, and the plunger. The needle goes into the muscle to put in medicine. The barrel holds the medicine. The plunger is used to get medicine into and out of the syringe.
  • The syringe has marks on the side of the barrel like a ruler. Instead of inches, the markings are in cc’s or ml’s with marks between for fractions of cc’s or ml’s. Each cc will have a number (1, 2, 3) next to the correct marking. On some syringes the half cc will also be marked.



  • If the medicine is already a liquid:


  • Do not use any medicine that has crystals or lumps in the vial.
  • Ask your caregiver or pharmacist what color the medicine should be. Do not give a medicine that is not the correct color.
  • You need to add air to the vial in the same amount that you plan to take out in order to get the medicine out of the vial. To do this, you need to know how much medicine to inject.
  • Pull the plunger back to the amount you plan to give. Remove the plastic or metal top of the vial, if it is still in place, and clean the rubber stopper with an alcohol wipe.
  • Insert the needle into the vial and push down on the plunger.
  • Once the air has been pushed into the vial, turn the vial, attached to the syringe, upside down. Make sure the tip of the needle remains below the level of the medicine. The medicine will come back into the syringe and stop at or near the correct place.
  • When you have the correct amount of medicine in the syringe, remove the needle and carefully put the cover back over the needle.


  • If the medicine is a powder, it has to be made into a liquid:
    • Your caregiver will order the correct sterile liquid to add to the powder. There are only two kinds of sterile liquids that may be used: sterile saline and sterile distilled water. They are packaged in vials with metal or plastic tops covering a rubber stopper. Use only the liquid that your caregiver provided or ordered. If you were told to use sterile saline, you may not use sterile distilled water. If you were told to use sterile distilled water you may not use sterile saline. Never use tap water.
    • Remove a syringe from its wrapper. If you need to add more than 3 cc’s of liquid, you will need to use 2 syringes. The first syringe is needed to add the sterile liquid. The second syringe is needed to give the shot.
    • If you have instructions from your caregiver, follow them. If you do not have instructions from your caregiver, read the label or package insert information. It will tell you how much liquid you will need to add to the powder to make the correct solution.
    • Take the metal or plastic top off the sterile saline or sterile distilled water vial. Do not take the rubber stopper off.
    • Wipe the top of the vial containing the sterile liquid you will use to dilute the powder with an alcohol wipe.
    • Also wipe the top of the vial with the medicine as a powder in it. Do not touch the tops of the vials after wiping them.


A vial has a certain amount of pressure in it. When air or liquid is removed, it must be replaced. To do this, first put the vial on a flat surface. You will only remove air from the vial. Leave the powder at the bottom of the vial. To remove air:

  • Insert the needle into the top of the vial with the powder and pull back the plunger to take air from the bottle. Take the same amount of air as the number of cc’s of liquid you will add to the powder. You may have to pull back harder on the syringe than you expect.
  • Remove the needle from the vial with the medicine. Stick the needle into the top of the vial with the sterile liquid. Push down on the plunger to inject the air into the sterile liquid vial.
  • Turn the vial attached to the syringe upside down. The sterile liquid will come back to about the same amount as the air you put in. Adjust the amount if necessary.
  • Remove the needle from the sterile liquid bottle.
  • Stick the needle into the vial with the medicine and push the plunger all the way down. The liquid should go in easily.
  • With the needle still in the vial, push it up to the hub. You do this so you cannot touch the sterile needle. Gently mix the liquid and the powder into a solution.
  • If you see powder in the vial, keep mixing until you see only liquid.
  • If you needed to use a large syringe to add liquid, remove the needle and follow the directions below: “If the medicine is already a liquid”.
  • You may use the same syringe to prepare medicine and give the shot. If so, turn the medicine and the syringe upside down.
  • Pull the needle down so the tip is in the medicine.
  • Pull the plunger back to the correct marking on the syringe barrel for the dose.
  • When you have the correct amount of medicine in the syringe, remove the needle and put the cover back carefully over the needle.

Things that may go wrong:

  • If you put in too much air, the plunger will be difficult to push.
  • If you don’t put in enough air, the plunger will be difficult to pull.
  • If you are using a multiple dose vial, too much or too little air may have been put in for a previous dose. If so, you will have to adjust the pull or push on the plunger.


How to Give A Subcutaneous (SC) Injections

Introduction: The two most common routes to administer injections are intramuscularly (IM) and subcutaneously (SQ or SC). A few products are given orally (per os – PO), intravenously (IV), or intranasally (IN). Giving vaccines or injections by the improper route can result in failure of the product and may result in local reactions. *The following information is from the manual Small Ruminant Production Medicine and Management.Subcutaneous (SQ or SC): A 1-inch needle of 18-20 gauge diameter should be used. The loose skin on the side of the neck or behind the elbow is a good location for SQ injections. These injections are given just below the skin, but not into the muscle. Substances injected SQ are not picked up by the blood supply as quickly as with IM injections, but greatly reduce carcass blemishes. To avoid accidental intravenous (IV) administration, pull on the plunger to make sure no blood appears in the syringe. If blood appears, pull the needle completely out and re-insert the needle in a new site.v

This picture shows one location for a SQ injection. It is being administered behind the elbow.


This picture shows the proper location for a SQ injection in the neck region.






How to Give an Intramuscular (IM) Injection

Intramuscular (IM): Injections given IM are picked up by the blood supply and spread to all tissues of the body very rapidly. A needle 1 to 1 ½ inches in length and 18-20 gauge in diameter is recommended for making IM injections. The best location to give injections is in the heavy muscles of the neck. To reduce carcass damage and potential nerve damage, avoid the rear quarters whenever possible. It is best to give no more than 15 mLs at any one site. To avoid accidental intravenous (IV) administration, pull on the plunger to make sure no blood appears in the syringe. If blood appears, pull the needle completely out and re-insert the needle in a new site. This information was taken from the Small Ruminant Production Medicine and Management manual.

The area outlined by the white triangle can be used for IM injections.


In goats, IM injections in the neck region can be difficult. A muscle mass found in the area shown by the needle and syringe can often be used. Injections given here seem to be well tolerated.


How To Give an Intravenous (IV) Injection

Intravenous (IV): Injections given IV are spread to all tissues of the body extremely rapidly. This is important in cases where the animal may require medications or fluids immediately because of dehydration or sickness. Situations of diarrhea, milk fever (hypocalcemia), grass tetany (hypomagnesemia), or pregnancy toxemia often require immediate IV fluids. When giving injections or fluids IV, use a needle 1 to 1 ½ inches in length and 18-20 gauge in diameter. The best location to give large volume IV injections is in the jugular vein in the neck. In lactating dairy goats, the milk vein can sometimes be used to inject small volumes of fluid. If an injection is given in a milk vein, use a small gauge needle to help reduce the possibility of excessive blood loss. This is information from the manual called, Small Ruminant Production Medicine and Management.

This picture shows an easy way to restrain a sheep or goat when trying to administer an injection IV or when trying to collect blood out of the jugular vein.


Clean the jugular region of the neck with alcohol. This will sanitize the area and make the vein easier to see. On animals with a lot of hair or wool, it sometimes helps to also clip the jugular area.


The thumb of one hand is placed on the lower portion of the vein. Once the vein is fully distended, the needle should be placed in a downward direction. Every effort should be made to avoid the carotid artery that is located just behind the jugular vein. No injection should ever be given in the carotid artery (see below for additional details). Once the needle is in place, the lower hand can be removed.


With the lower hand removed, no blood should come out of the needle. If blood continues to squirt out of the top of the needle, it could be in the carotid artery. If there is any question on the location of the needle, it should be removed and the process started over again. If everything seems correct, blood can be drawn or an injection can be given.